The Diagnosis and Management of First-line Antiretroviral Treatment Failure

Published 07/09/2012
CPD credit available: 3

Disclosure of Financial Interests/Funding Support: The authors have no financial interests to report. The authors wish to acknowledge the following funding support: European Commission: Aid for poverty-related diseases (HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria) in developing countries. Project: SANTE 2007 147-790. Dr Richard Lessells is supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant no 090999).


Case Objective: At the end of this case study, the reader should be able to define the criteria for antiretroviral treatment failure and for switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy. He/she should be able to interpret a genotypic resistance test in the context of the clinical history. He/she should be able to select an appropriate second-line regimen and understand how co-morbidities might affect the choice of regimen. This case is also an example of the cases presented in the HIV and TB Drug Resistance Clinical Management Book that we have recently published. All of the cases in the book are openly accessible and are available on digital book repositories, such as Google Books, and on the Southern African and Treatment Resistance (SATuRN) website


Instructions: This activity is an interactive learning activity and will give you an overview and detailed answers to the questions. Each case is separated into several sections, and only one section is visible at a time. Each section is concluded by a multiple choice question, where you will have to select the most appropriate answer. If this answer is not correct, you will be given the opportunity to re-select another answer.

After all the questions have been answered, there will be a post-test questionnaire in order to qualify for CPD points. Only users registered as members of the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society may obtain CPD points. If you are not a member and would like to join, please apply online.